2.G Handling Of Bulk Products, Diffuse Emissions

Last updated on 24 Jan 2013 17:05 by Kevin Hausmann

Here you can find information about the main source handling of bulk products and other diffuse emissions of dust.

NFR-Code Name of Category Method AD EF Key Source for
2.G handling of bulk products T1 NS CS TSP (L/T), PM10 (L/T), PM2.5 (L/T)

Given the current estimates, 2.G is the inventory's main category regarding emissions of TSP and PM10! For more information please see the key source analysis for TSP as well as for PM10 and PM2.5.

(2.G) Handling Of Bulk Products

Short description

In this category, dust emissions from bulk material handling including agricultural bulk materials offsite the fields are reported. Emissions from quarrying and mining of minerals and from point source emissions are excluded from this category!


All emissions are calculated using a tier1 method taking into account detailed data on handled materials and products.
Here, detailed calculations start based on statistical data starts with 1997. For 1990 to 1996, only simplified estimates without a differentiation of handled materials and products exist.

Activity data

Official statistics are of limited use in determining handling of bulk products. Only transport statistics are available published in transported materials in tons. Consultants and experts determined only via conversion factors the handled materials, most having regard to one loading and one unloading process. A research project has completed activity data until 2009 (see under EF). Due to a complex and detailed revision of the transport statistics, 2010 AD could not be derived from this statistics in time but had to be extrapolated based on growth information for amounts of transported bulk materials compared to 2009.

Emission factors

Emission factors are based on the methodology according VDI guidelines 3790. The values used here originate from a research project taking into account information of an expert panel of industry and administration. For details see the project report at UBA homepage.

Ratio TSP : PM10 : PM2.5

The shares of PM10 and PM2.5 of the entire amounts of emitted TSP have been set to fixed values used for the entire time series.
The party follows the assumption, that 50 % of TSP (= 100 %) are =< 10 µm (PM10) and 10 % of TSP are =< 2.5 µm (PM2.5):


The split of TSP to PM was also discussed in the research project mentioned above but without generating any new data. Nonetheless, the ratios might be to low at the moment and will be checked furthermore.

Due to efforts to prevent particle emissions, the EF time series for all three fractions of particulate matter show a falling trend.

Emission factors used for 2010 estimates

For this submission, most important EF (out of more than fifty) were the following:

Table: Selection of EF used for 2010 emissions estimates of main bulk goods, [g/t]

Bulk good TSP PM10 PM2.5
Cement 4.0 2.0 0.4
Crops - barley, rye, wheat 38.0 19.0 3.8
Crops - oats, rice 15.0 7.5 1.5
Hard coal 27.0 13.5 2.7
Hard coal briquettes 24.0 12.0 2.4
Iron ore 48.0 24.0 4.8
Iron slag 64.0 32.0 6.4
Lignite (raw + briquettes + coke) 7.0 3.5 0.7
Lime 9.0 4.5 0.9
Natural sand + gravel 23.0 11.5 2.3
Nitric fertilizers 20.0 10.0 2.0
Non-mineral fertilizers 20.0 10.0 2.0
Other metal ore 27.0 13.5 2.7
Other raw minerals 15.0 7.5 1.5
Rock salt (sodium chloride) 29.0 14.5 2.9

Trend discussion for Key Sources

There are no opposite trends of emissions.

Planned improvements

After the mentioned complex revision of the transport statistics, the methodology of estimating AD will be adapted replacing extrapolated 2010 AD by real data.

(2.G) Diffuse Emissions

Short description

The NFR category 2.G includes also diffuse emissions from enterprises in general kind.


As no detailed data are available and as 2.G is no key source, all emissions are calculated via a tier1 method.
The estimation is based on an European method computing emissions per person of population.

Actvity data

Table: Annual population data is provided by official statistics

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
79,753,000 80,275,000 80,975,000 81,338,000 81,539,000 81,817,000 82,012,000 82,057,000 82,037,000 82,163,000
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
82,260,000 82,440,000 82,537,000 82,532,000 82,501,000 82,438,000 82,315,000 82,218,000 82,002,000 81,802,000
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019

Emission factors

Emission factors originate in the results of a research project with respect to the European RAINS model. - The EF time series for all three fractions of particulate matter show a falling trend.

Emission factors used for 2010 estimates

Table: EF used for 2010 emissions estimates, [kg/capita]

pollutant EF
TSP 0.3052
PM10 0.1008
PM2.5 0.0336

Trend discussion for Key Sources

There are no opposite trends of emissions.


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