1.A.2.f.i Other Production

Last updated on 24 Jan 2013 17:05 by Kevin Hausmann

Short description


Source catagory 1.A.2.f.i - Other Production comprises stationary combustion systems for production of cement clinkers, production of ceramics products as well as glass and lime production. Fuel combustion from heat and power production of industrial power plants and industrial boiler systems are also included.

NFR-Code Name of Category Method AD EF Key Source for (by1)
1.A.2.f i Other Production T2 NS SOx & NOx (L/T), CO (L), TSP (T), PM2.5 (L), Hg (T), Cd (T), PCDD/F (T)


Activity data

Data source for fuel inputs for energy-related process combustion in cement industry are manufacturing-sector statistics (Statistik des produzierenden Gewerbes); reporting number (Melde-Nr.) 26.51, Cement production. Furthermore the cement industry uses significant amounts of substitute fuels that do not appear in national statistics and in the Energy Balance. Relevant production figures and fuel-use amounts have been taken from statistics of the VDZ cement-industry association.
The fuel-input data for ceramics production has also been taken from manufacturing industry statistics (Statistik des produzierenden Gewerbes); reporting no. (Melde-Nr.) 26.40, brickworks (Ziegelei), production of other construction ceramics.
The same statistic is also used as source for fuel input of glass ( reporting number: 26.1, Production of glass and glassware) and lime production (reporting number: 26.52, Lime). Since 2003, the lime industry has used minor amounts of substitute fuels that do not appear
in national statistics and in the Energy Balance. The fuel-input data was provided by the national lime-industry association (Bundesverband der Deutschen Kalkindustrie).
The fuel inputs for electricity generation in industrial power stations are shown in Energy Balance line 12. The difference resulting after deduction of the fuel inputs for refinery power stations, pit power stations, power stations in the hard-coal-mining sector and, for the period until 1999, for the power stations of German Railways (Deutsche Bahn) consists of the activity data for other industrial power stations. These data cannot be further differentiated. Additional data from the Federal Statistical Office are needed for allocation of fuel inputs to heat production in industrial power stations and boiler systems. For both electricity production and heat production, gas turbines, gas and steam systems and gas engines are differentiated. These detailed information is provided by the national statistic 067 (industrial power stations).

Emission factors

The emission factors for power stations and other boiler combustion for production of steam and hot water, in source catagory 1.A.2.f.i, have been taken from the research project "Determination and evaluation of emission factors for combustion systems in Germany for the years 1995, 2000 and 2010". A detailed description of the procedure is presented in Chapter: 1.A.1.a - Public Electricity And Heat Production.

Table: Implied emission factors for industrial electricity and heat production

Pollutant SOx NOx TSP
Fuel [kg/TJ]
Hard Coal 267 119 9
Lignite 297 98 11
Natural gas 0.5 61 0.2
Mineral oil products 120 64 3
Biomass 14 142 32
Waste 9 103 0.5

Trend Discussion for Key Sources

The following diagrams give an overview and assistance for explaining dominant emission trends of selected pollutant.

Sulfur Oxides & Nitrogen Oxides - SOx & NOx

Like already discussed in source catagory 1.A.1.c, SOx emission trend is very much influenced by emissions from lignite fired plants. The strong decline of lignite use in the East German industry and the installation of flue gas desulphurisation plants in the remaining heat and power stations are the main reasons for decreasing SOx emissions.

Total Suspended Matter - TSP & Priority Heavy Metal - Hg & Cd

The main driver of TSP and Heavy Metal emission trends is the declining lignite combustion in the east german industry especially in the time period from 1990 to 1994. Besides the noticible improvement of dust extraction installations on the one hand and optimisation of the combustion process on the other hand resulted in considerably decreasing TSP and Heavy Metal emissions. Basically the emission trend of source category 1.A2.f.i is affected by the closure of industrial plants in Eastern Germany after the reunification and the resulting decrease in fuel consumption.

Persistent Organic Pollutants

PCDD and PCDF emissions show a falling trend over the whole time period due to decreasing fuel consumption in the industry sector.


Recalculations were necessary for the latest reference year (2009) due to the availability of the National Energy Balance. Germany has a federal structure which causes a time lack of the National Energy Balance. Therefore recalculations are always necessary.
Further recalculations due to a comprehensive evaluation of measurements which necessitated a revision of NOX and heavy metal emission factors of coal fired power plants and waste incineration plants. The reallocation of the blast furnace gas fired power plants from source category 1.A.2.f.i other to 1.A.2.a led to remarkable changes in both source categories from 1990 - 2009.

Planned improvements

It´s planned to revise SO2, CO, TSP, PM10 and PM2.5 emission factors for all combustion plants.

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