1.A.1.c Manufacture Of Solid Fuels And Other Energy Industries

Last updated on 24 Jan 2013 17:05 by Kevin Hausmann

Short description


Source category 1.A.1.c - Manufacture Of Solid Fuels And Other Energy Industries includes hard-coal and lignite mining, coking and briquetting plants and extraction of crude oil and natural gas. Used-oil processing plants are also included. CO emissions from coking plants are reported in source catagory 1.B.1 Solid Fuels Subcatagory 1.B.1.b. - all the other pollutants are reported under source catagory 1.A.1.c.

NFR-Code Name of Category Method AD EF Key Source for (by)
1.A.1.c Manufacture of Solid Fuels and Other Energy Industries T2 NS CS SOx & NOx (T), TSP & PM10 (T), Pb, Hg & Cd (T)


Activity data

Fuel inputs for electricity production in power plants of the hard-coal and lignite mining sector are listed in Energy Balance line 12 "Industrial thermal power stations". Fuel inputs for heat production in the transformation sector are listed in Energy Balance lines 33-39.
Fuel inputs for electricity production in power stations of the hard-coal mining sector are determined with the help of figures of the Federal Statistical Office (DESTATIS). The activity rates for heat production in power stations of the hard-coal mining sector correspond to energy Balance line 34 "Energy input in pit and briquette plants of the hard-coal mining sector".
The listed fuel input for electricity and heat production in pit power plants is based on association information from DEBRIV (the federal German association of all lignite producing companies and their affliated organisations). Inputs for heat production, especially for lignite drying for production of lignite products, are not shown in the Energy Balance. Those are calculated from figures for production of lignite products (STATISTIK DER KOHLENWIRTSCHAFT) and from the specific fuel inputs required for dying from DEBRIV.
Energy consumption data for hard-coal coke production are provided by the Energy Balance line 33.
The fuel input for heat production in the remaining transformation sector is obtained by combining the energy consumption figures in Energy Balance lines 33 to 39 (total energy consumption in the transformation sector). These figures include the pits´own consumption, facilities for petroleum and natural gas production and for processing of old oil; plants that produce coal products; plants for production and processing of fissile and fertile materials; and wastewater-treatment facilities.

Emission factors

The emission factors for power stations and other boiler combustion for production of steam and hot water, in source catagory 1.A.1.c, have been taken from the research project "Determination and evaluation of emission factors for combustion systems in Germany for the years 1995, 2000 and 2010". A detailed description of the procedure is presented in Chapter: 1.A.1.a - Public Electricity And Heat Production.

Table: Implied emission factors for manfacture of solid fuels and other energy industry

Pollutant SOx NOx TSP
Fuel [kg/TJ]
Hard Coal 86 72 2
Lignite 151 102 6
Pit gas 2 118 0.3
Coke oven gas 89 78 0.3

Trend Discussion for Key Sources

The following diagrams give an overview and assistance for explaining dominant emission trends of selected pollutants.

Sulfur Oxides - SOx

The graph shows sharp declining SOx emissions between 1990 and 1995 due to decreasing lignite consumption as well as the implementation of stricter regulations in eastern Germany. In the former GDR lignite industry was of prime importance for the economy. After the reunification lignite briquette production in eastern Germany collapsed. The remaining factories had to install flue gas desulphurisation plants.

Nitrogen Oxides - NOx

NOx emissions descrease gradually from 1990 to 2009. The main reasons are the minor fuel use of lignite and of hard coal in this sector and the adaptation of regulations in eastern Germany to the western standard. Besides german hard coal production decreased considerably since 1990. Therefore some hard coal fired industrial power plants changed from sector 1.A.1.c to the public sector.

Total Suspended Matter - TSP & PM10Priority Heavy Metal - Pb & Hg & Cd

Priority Heavy Metal - Pb & Hg & Cd

Similar to SOx emissions, TSP and Priority Heavy Metal emission trends show a high dominance of emissions from lignite combustion. Like already discussed for other pollutant, the main reason for sharp declining emissions in this sector is the complete restructuring of the east german lignite industry. The low standard of dust abatement in eastern germany in the early 1990th involved high heavy metal emissions too. The closing of briquette factories and the imlementation fo strikter regulations resulted in a considerably improvement of the air quality especially in the New German Länder.


Recalculations were necessary for the latest reference year (2009) due to the availability of the National Energy Balance. Germany has a federal structure which causes a time lack of the National Energy Balance. Therefore recalculations are always necessary.
Further recalculations due to a comprehensive evaluation of measurements which necessitated a revision of NOX and heavy metal emission factors of coal fired power plants. Some small improvements of SOX emission factors have been made.

Planned improvements

It´s planned to revise SO2, CO, TSP, PM10 and PM2.5 emission factors for all combustion plants.

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