1.A.1.a Public Electricity And Heat Production

Last updated on 24 Jan 2013 17:05 by Kevin Hausmann

Short description

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Source category Public Electricity and Heat Production (1.A.1.a) comprises district heating plants and electricity and heat production of power plants. Waste incineration is also included.

NFR-Code Name of Category Method AD EF Key Source for (by)
1.A.1.a Public Electricity and Heat Production T2 NS CS SOx & NOx (L/T), CO (L), TSP, PM10 & PM2.5 (L/T), Pb (L/T), Hg (L/T), Cd (L/T), PCDD/F (L/T), HCB (L/T)

Method

Activity data

The fuel input for electricity production is given in line 11 ("Public thermal power stations") of the National Energy Balance. The fuel inputs for public heat production are given in lines 15 ("combined heat and power stations") and 16 ("district heating stations"). Line 14 ("Hydroelectric, wind-power, photovoltaic systems and other similar systems") comprises all systems/ plants that generate electricity from biogas, landfill gas, sewage-treatment gas or solid biomass and feed the electricity into the public grid. Since no cut-off limit applies for such systems, this catagory includes very small sytems too.
Above-mentioned data provided by the Energy Balance are summarised fuel consumption data. To get technical details which are needed for calculating emissions additional statistical data were used. All the data result in the calculation model "Balance of Emission Sources" which is part of the central database (CSE). The aim of the database is to produce more detailed fuel consumption data which are adjusted to the special technical characteristics of electricity and heat production. As a result, fuel-specific and technology-specific emission factors may be applied to the relevant activity rates.
When the calculations for submission 2012 were done, the Energy Balance 2010 was not yet available. Insofar for the year 2010 preliminary data are used. These data are also provided by the Working Group on Energy Balances which compiles a priliminary energy balance. That's the reason why Germany has to done recalculations for the previous year.
For waste incineration plants both energy and waste statistics are used. That way, completeness is ensured and double counting avoided. This procedure systematically determines emission factors for the substances SO2, NOX, CO, NMVOC, dust and N2O. The process diferenciates between 12 coal fuels, 4 liquid fuels, 7 gaseous fuels and firewood. In addition, the available data relative to emission factors of other substances are also compiled; these other substances include PAH, PCDD/F, As and Cd for combustion systems subject to licensing requirements, and CH4 for gas turbines and combustion systems under the TA Luft that are subject to licensing requirements.

Emission factors

The underlying data for the emission factors used is provided by the report on the research project "Ermittlung und Evaluierung von Emissionsfaktoren für Feuerungsanlagen in Deutschland für die Jahre 1995, 2000 und 2010" (Determination and evaluation of emission factors for combustion systems in Germany for the years 1995, 2000 and 2010"; RENTZ et al, 2002). The values for the intermediate years 1996 - 1999 and 2001 - 2008 are obtained via linear interpolation. That project, along with the linear interpolation for the intermediate years, has also provided the underlaying data for the source catagories 1.A.1.b, 1.A.1.c and 1.A.2.fi, where the factors include power plants, gas turbines or boilers for production of steam and hot/ warm water. The research project was carried out by the Franco-German Institute for Environmental research (Deutsch-Französisches Institut für Umweltforschung - DFIU) at the University of Karlsruhe, and it was completed at the end of 2002. The project aim was to determine and evaluate representive emission factors for the main air polluntants produced by combustion plants and gas turbine plants in Germany that are subject to licensing requirements, and to do so for the years 1995, 2000 and 2010. This process consists primarily of analysing and characterising the relevant emitter structures, and the pertinent emission factors, for the year 1995, and then of updating the data for the years 2000 and 2010. This procedure systematically determines emission factors for the substances SO2, NOx, CO, NMVOC, dust and N2O. The process differentiates between 12 coal fuels, 4 liquid fuels, 7 gaseous fuels and firewood. In addition, the available data relative to emission factors of other substances are also compiled; these other substances include PAH, PCDD/F, As and Cd for combustion systems subject to licensing requirements.
As part of a research project, completed in February 2007, for updating the National Programme in the framework of directive 2001/81/EC on national emission ceilings for certain atmospheric pollutants ("NEC Directive"), induvidual emission factors for the components SO2, NOx and dust were revised in keeping with recent findings.

Table: Implied emission factors for public electricity and heat production

Pollutant SOx NOx TSP
Fuel [kg/TJ]
Hard Coal 60 62 3
Lignite 72 73 3
Natural gas 0.5 59 0.3
Mineral oil products 75 71 5
Biomass 36 122 6
Waste 3 49 0.5

Trend discussion for Key Sources

The following diagrams give an overview and assistance for explaining dominant emission trends of selected pollutants.

Fuel Consumption

The first graph shows that the total energy consumption of fossil fuels for public electricity and heat consumption didn't change very much since 1990. The main reasons are the rising electricity demand and a great number of industrial power plants whose emissions are now reported in source catagorie 1.A.1.a. From 1990 to 2009 fuel swich changed slightly from coal to natural gas. In 2009 fuel consumption of all fossil fuels decreased remarkable as a result of the economic crisis. The economic recovery in 2010 led to an increasing fuel consumption because of the increasing electricity demand. From 2003 biomass consumption rises considerably due to the government aid of renewable energies.

Sulfur Oxides - SOx

SOx emission trend shows the big dominance of lignite due to high Sulphur content of lignite fuels. However SOx emissions decrease more than lignite consumption does. Before the german reunification in 1990, lignite fired public power plants in eastern germany didn't use flue gas desulphurisation plants. The implementation of strikter regulations in the New German Länder resulted in considerably decreasing emissions. From 1999 onwards emissions remain stable at a very low level.

Nitrogen Oxides - NOx

Nitrogen oxides emissions decreases due to declining lignite consumption in the early 1990s and due to NOx emission reduction measurements in the New German Länder. After 2002 the increasing consumption of natural gas biogas, wood and other biomass in the public sector gain influence and increases NOx emissions. The upward trend was only interrupted by the economic crises in 2009.

Particulate Matter - PM2.5 & PM10 & TSP

Similar to SOx emissions, Particulate Matter emissions decreases considerably since 1990 due to stricter regulations in eastern Germany. After 2002 PM10 and PM2.5 emission trends were influenced by the increasing use of biomass for public electricity and heat production.

Priority Heavy metal - Pb & Hg & Cd

Emission trends of all priority heavy metals are mostly influenced by the emissions from lignite use. The reasons of the declining emissions are on the one hand the decreasing lignite consumption and on the other hand the implementation of stricter regulations in eastern Germany. Due to the fact, that heavy metal emission factors for waste incineration plants are constant, emission trends solely depend on coal consumption. In reality emission trends of all heavy metals would be more influenced by the emissions from waste fuels, since the emission factors for waste incineration plants in 1990 are expected to be high. In recent years emissions from Biomass combustion gain more and more influence on the trend.

Persistent Organic Pollutants

HCB emission factors of hard coal are given by the CORINAIR Guidebook 2006. While emission factors of waste are given by a Danish study. The 1990 value for waste incineration plants is an expert judgement derived from the developement of legislative regulation. Insofar emission trend depends basically on the technical developement of waste incineration plants as well as fuel consumption of hard coal and its annual fluctuations. Regarding to HCB emissions the German inventory is not yet complete. Large source catagories are not yet reported since uncertainties of emission factors are very high due to unavailable measurements. Therefore source catagory 1.A.1.a is key catagory in level for HCB.
Main driver of the dioxin emission trend is by far waste incineration with high specific emissions in the early 90s and considerably decreasing emissions due to stricter regulations in Germany. In recent years emissions remain stable at a very low level.

Recalculations

Recalculations were necessary for the latest reference year (2009) due to the availability of the National Energy Balance. Germany has a federal structure which causes a time lack of the National Energy Balance. Therefore recalculations are always necessary.
Further recalculations due to a comprehensive evaluation of measurements which necessitated a revision of NOX and heavy metal emission factors of coal fired power plants and waste incineration plants. Some improvements of SOX emission factors have been made.

Planned improvements

It´s planned to revise SO2, CO, TSP, PM10 and PM2.5 emission factors for all combustion plants.
Furthermore there are plans for POP measurements for waste incineration plants and large combustion plants.

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