1.A.3.d.i International Navigation

Last updated on 24 Jan 2013 17:05 by Kevin Hausmann

Short description

Under category 1.A.3.d i - International Navigation the emissions from international navigation are reported.

NFR-Code Name of Category Method AD EF Key Source for (by)
1.A.3.d i International Navigation T1 NS CS, D, C not included in national totals

The source category includes international deep sea fishery and international marine transport. Emissions from fuel consumption for international transports of ocean-going ships are not reported as part of total national inventories.

Method

For Germany, emissions from navigation are calculated as the product of consumed fuels and country-specific emission factors and thus following a tier1 approach.

Activity data

The total consumptions of diesel oil and heavy fuel oil have been taken from the German Energy Balances (AGEB, 2011) [1]. For comparison (especially recent years), official mineral-oil data of the Federal Office of Economics and Export Control (BAFA, 2011) [2] are used, too.

Table: Sources for AR in 1.A.3.d i

Relevant years Data Source
since 1990 AGEB - National Energy Balance, line 6: 'Hochseebunkerungen'
recent years / comparison BAFA - Official oil data, table 6j, column: 'Bunker int. Schifffahrt'

Table: 1.A.3.d i annual fuel consumption 1990-2010, [TJ]

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
Diesel Oil 21,408 17,375 17,330 19,165 17,748 18,498 25,713 25,659 20,734 18,794
Heavy Fuel Oil 80,230 68,029 54,038 70,059 64,363 64,382 56,468 62,708 62,812 66,018
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Diesel Oil 20,033 18,146 19,384 20,433 17,873 17,538 21,388 23,453 19,312 19,870
Heavy Fuel Oil 69,578 72,311 77,913 87,029 92,020 85,370 85,277 104,066 103,830 92,614
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
Diesel Oil 21,605
Heavy Fuel Oil 93.058

italic figures: recalculated against submission 2011

1A3di_AR.png

Consumption of heavy oil has been increasing since 1984 as a result of high petroleum prices, global increases in transports and increasing maritime use of diesel engines that can run on heavy oil. The emissions fluctuations that occurred in the navigation sector in 1992 and 1996 were caused by trade and oil crises.

Emission factors

At the moment, EF used here are tier 1 only: For NH3, NOx, NMVOC, CO, SO2, PM, heavy metals, HCB, and PCBs default EF from EMEP Guidebook are used. Tier1 EF for PAHs and PCDD/F were estimated within in UBA study.

Emission factors used for 2010 estimates

Main Pollutants1 Particulate Matter1 Heavy Metals 1 Persistent Organis Pollutants
NEC Other PM2.5 ≤ PM10 ≤ TSP Main HM Other HM Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons 2 Dioxins & Furans2 Hexachlo- robenzene Polychlorinated biphenyls
Pollutant NH3 NMVOC NOx SO2 CO PM2.5 PM10 TSP Pb Cd Hg As Cr Cu Ni Se Zn B[a]P B[b]F B[k]F I[1,2,3-cd]P ∑PAH PCDD/F HCB 1 PCBs 1
Unit kg/TJ kg/TJ g/TJ mg/TJ µg/TJ mg/TJ
Diesel Oil 4 52 1,800 600 180 60 60 60 3.03 0.23 0.70 0.93 1.16 20.48 23.28 2.33 27.93 698 IE3 IE3 IE3 930 93 1.86 8.85
Heavy Fuel Oil 4 52 1,800 1,400 180 60 60 60 4.45 0.49 0.49 16.83 17.82 30.93 792 5.20 29.69 698 IE3 IE3 IE3 930 93 3.46 14.10

1 Tier1 default EF from EMEP/EEA Emission Inventory Guidebook 2009
2 EF from UBA study
3 included in EF(∑PAH)

Trends of exhaust emissions from international navigation

NFR 1.A.3.d.i - International Navigation is not included in the nationaol totals an hence not considered in the key source analysis.

All emissions reported correlate with the annual fuel consumption shown above.

Ammonia (NH3), Non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC), nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulphur dioxide (SO2), and carbon monoxide (CO)

Particulate matter (PM2.5, PM10, and TSP)

As for all reported exhaust PM emissions from mobile diesel vehicles the party assumes that nearly all particles emitted are within the PM2.5 range, resulting in similar emission values for PM2.5, PM10 , and TSP.

Recalculations

AD: Due to a revision of National Energy Balance 2009, AD for heavy fuel oil used in Maritime Navigation was updated. All other years as well as the entire times series for diesel oil remained unchanged instead.

Table: Recalculations of heavy fuel oil consumption

Unit 1990 1995 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Submission 2012 [TJ] 80,230 64,382 69,578 72,311 77,913 87,029 92,020 85,370 85,277 104,066 103,830 92,614
Submission 2011 [TJ] 80,230 64,382 69,578 72,311 77,913 87,029 92,020 85,370 85,277 104,066 103,830 92,793
absolute change [TJ] 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 -179.00
relative change [%] 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 -0.19

EF: Compared to the draft version of the EMEP Guidebook 2009 used for submission 2011, within the final version of the EMEP Guidebook 2009 several tier1 default EFs were changed
rather strongly. These changes led to often extreme recalculations especially for all heavy metals. - In addition, emissions of HCB and PCBs were estimated for the first time using tier1 EMEP defaults.

Table: Corrected/revised EMEP tier1 default emission factors for heavy metals

Unit As Cd Cr Cu Hg Ni Pb Se Zn
Diesel oil
Submission 2012 [g/TJ] 0.93 0.23 1.16 20.48 0.70 23.28 3.03 2.33 27.93
Submission 2011 [g/TJ] 1,163.87 232.77 0.93 1,163.87 1,163.87 1.63 2.33 4.66 11.64
absolute change [g/TJ] -1,162.94 -232.54 0.23 -1,143.39 -1,163.17 21.65 0.70 -2.33 16.29
relative change [%] -99.92 -99.90 24.73 -98.24 -99.94 1,328.22 30.04 -50.00 139.95
Heavy fuel oil
Submission 2012 [g/TJ] 16.83 0.49 17.82 30.93 0.49 791.79 4.45 5.20 29.69
Submission 2011 [g/TJ] 12,371.64 742.30 4.95 12,371.64 494.87 742.30 4.95 9.90 22.27
absolute change [g/TJ] -1,162.94 -232.54 0.23 -1,143.39 -1,163.17 21.65 0.70 -2.33 16.29
relative change [%] -99.92 -99.90 24.73 -98.24 -99.94 1,328.22 30.04 -50.00 139.95

Due to this extreme recalculations, the national inventory changed significantly for heavy metals.

For information on the impacts on 1990 and 2009 emission estimates, please see the pollutant specific recalculation tables following chapter 11.1 - Recalculations.

Uncertainties

Uncertainty estimates for activity data of mobile sources derive from research project FKZ 360 16 023: "Ermittlung der Unsicherheiten der mit den Modellen TREMOD und TREMOD-MM berechneten Luftschadstoffemissionen des landgebundenen Verkehrs in Deutschland". For detailled information, please refer to the project's final report here (German version only!)

Uncertainty estimates for emission factors were compiled during the PAREST research project. Here, the final report has not yet been published.

Planned improvements

At the moment, a research project investigates availability and usability of ship specific engine and movement data in order to fundamentally revise the inventory for Maritime Navigation.

FAQs


Bibliography
1. AGEB, 2011: Arbeitsgemeinschaft Energiebilanzen (Hrsg.): Energiebilanz für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland; URL: http://www.ag-energiebilanzen.de/viewpage.php?idpage=63, (Aufruf: 27.12.2011), Köln, Berlin.
2. BAFA, 2011: Bundesamt für Wirtschaft und Ausfuhrkontrolle, Amtliche Mineralöldaten für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland;
URL: http://www.bafa.de/bafa/de/energie/mineraloel_rohoel/amtliche_mineraloeldaten/index.html, (Aufruf: 27.12.2011), Eschborn.
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