1.B Fugitive Emissions from fuels

Last updated on 24 Jan 2013 17:05 by Kevin Hausmann

Short Description

During all stages of fuel production and use, from extraction of fossil fuels to their final use, fuel components can escape or be released as fugitive emissions.

While NMVOC, TSP and SOx are the most important emissions within the source category solid fuels, fugitive emissions of oil and natural gas include substantial amounts of NMVOC, including BTX (benzene, toluene and xylenes), and SOx.

1.B - "Fugitive emission from fuels" consist of following sub-categories:

1.B.1

Solid Fuels


Includes:
production and transformation from hard-coal and lignite

1.B.2

Liquid and gaseous Fuels


Includes:
crude oil, liquid oil products, natural gas, town gas, refinery gas, venting and flaring

1.B.3

Geothermal


This chapter is included in "liquid and gaseous fuels".

Trends in emissions

pollutant source total emission average uncertainty1 trend key reasons of emission reduction
in 1990 [Gg] in 2009 [Gg] in 2010 [Gg] [2010] since 1990 since last year
NMVOC 1.B.1.b, 1.B.2.a & 1.B.2.c 240,88 83,08 81,39 -20% | +20 % -66% -2% The decrease is due to implementation of the Technical Instruction on Air Quality Control (TA-Luft 2002), to deacreases in emissions from petrol storage and from fuelling of motor vehicles (1.B.2.a.v) - as a result of implementation of the 20th and 21st Ordinances on the Execution of the Federal Imission Control Act (BImSchV) - and to reduced petrol consumption.
thereof BTX2 1.B.2.a 35,70 24,15 23,22 -20% | +20 % -32% -1% see above
TSP 1.B.1.b 145,80 0,99 1,04 -25% | +25 % -99% +4% The steep reduction especially at the beginning of the 1990s was due especially to closures in the eastern German industrial sector, to use of improved filters and most of all the decreasing production of lignite briquettes (1.B.1.b).
thereof PM10 1.B.2.a 1,17
(1995)3
0,46 0,47 -30% | +30 % -59% +6% see above
thereof PM2,5 1.B.2.a 0,64
(1995)4
0,29 0,31 -30% | +30 % -52% +7% see above
SO2 1.B.1.b & 1.B.2 57,49 16,66 15,42 -30% | +30 % -73% -8% The sharp reductions in such emissions seen especially at the beginning of the 1990s were due especially to closures in the eastern German industrial sector, to u se of improved filters and to switching from lignite to other fuels. In subsequent years, decreasing production of hard-coal coke (1.B.1.b) and improved filter technilogies in desulphurisation of natural gas (1.B.2.b.ii) had the largest effects on emissions.
CO 1.B.1.b & 1.B.2.b 28,96 1,59 1,62 -40% | +50 % -94% -4% Carbon monoxid has decreased primarily as a result of decreasing production of hard-coal (1.B.1.b) and discontinuation of city-gas delivieries via the public-gas-distribution network (1.B.2.b.iv).
NH3 1.B.1.b 0,60 0 0 -30% | +30 % -100% - - - The emissions stopped to occur in 1994 due to the discontinuation of the low-temperature lignite-coke production.
NOx 1.B.2.c 6,70 7,09 6,70 -20% | +20 % 0% -5% Emissions of nitrous oxide originate in flaring (1.B.2.c) in oil and gas production, and in gas processing. They are very low. Due to the default emission factor for flaring at refineries the emissions are considered not to vary. It is planned to develop an country specific emission factor.

Following chart provides emission trends for main pollutants in NFR 1.B. (click to enlarge):

Overview_EM_1B.JPG

Please refer to sub-categories for more details.


Proportional share of fugitive emissions concerning emissions of the energy sector and national total amounts

pollutant fugitive amount
in year 2010
share within the
energy sector
share within the
national inventory
NO2 6,7 Gg 0,6 % 0,5 %
NMVOC 81,4 Gg 27,0 % 7,7 %
SO2 15,4 Gg 4,2 % 3,4 %
PM2.5 0,3 Gg 0,4 % 0,3 %
PM10 0,5 Gg 0,5 % 0,2 %
TSP 1,0 Gg 1,0 % 0,4 %
CO 1,6 Gg 0,1 % < 0,1 %
Pb 9,5 Mg 7,5 % 5,0 %
Cd 0,3 Mg 7,0 % 5,1 %
Hg 0,2 Mg 2,2 % 1,8 %
As 0,8 Mg 13,5 % 13,5 %
Ni 2,2 Mg 2,2 % 2,1 %
PCDD/F 17,5 mg I-Teq5 < 0,1 % < 0,1 %
B(a)P 40,9 kg 0,1 % 0,1 %
PAH (total) 459,1 kg 0,3 % 0,2 %

The following charts show the contribution of the main pollutants of the NFR sector 1.B for 1990 and 2010. Click any chart to enlarge.

Pollutant 1990 2010
Nitrogen dioxide
all nitrogen dioxide emissions occur in NFR sector 1.B.2.c - "Flaring"

Carbon monoxide CO1990.jpg CO2010.jpg
NMVOC NMVOC1990.jpg NMVOC2010.jpg
Sulphur dioxide SOx1990.jpg SOx2010.jpg
Particulate matter
all particulate matter emissions occur in NFR sector 1.B.1 - "Coal mining and handling"

Recalculations

Please refer to the Recalculation Chapter for explanations.

Submission Difference
Pollutant 2011 2012 absolute relative explanatory information / reason for recalculation Change in NFR Code
Nitrogen Oxides NOx 7,14 [Gg] 6,71 [Gg] 0,43 [Gg] -6 % new country specific emission factors for flaring at oil and gas production plants 1 B 2 c
Non Methane Volatile Organic Compounds NMVOC 291,76 [Gg] 262,16 [Gg] 29,60 [Gg] -10 % new country specific emission factor for production of oil; distributioin of diesel and fuel oil is reported the first time 1 B 2
Sulfur Oxides SOx 77,62 [Gg] 60,58 [Gg] 17,04 [Gg] -22 % revised emission factor for preparation of natural gas 1 B 2
Carbon Monoxide CO 56,82 [Gg] 28,94 [Gg] 27,88 [Gg] -49 % revised emission factor for coal transformation 1 B 1 b
Arsenic AS 2,33 [Mg] 1,76 [Mg] 0,57 [Mg] -24 % revised emission factor for coal transformation 1 B 1 b
Dioxines and Furanes PCDD/PCDF 1,35 [g I-Teq] 0,29 [g I-Teq] 1,06 [g I-Teq] -79 % process-related emissions from hard-coal transformation in cokeries are now reported in 1.A.2 1 B 1 b
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