1.A.3.a.ii Domestic Civil Aviation

Last updated on 24 Jan 2013 17:05 by Kevin Hausmann

+Short description
Category 1.A.3.a ii - Domestic Civil Aviation consists of sub-categories for emissions from flight phases LTO (Landing/Take-off: 0-3,000 feet) and Cruise (> 3,000 feet) where only emissions from LTO have to be included in the national totals.

In the following, information on emission factors and emissions for both 1.A.3.a ii (i) - Domestic Civil Aviation (LTO) and 1.A.3.a ii (ii) - Domestic Civil Aviation (Cruise) are provided.

Emissions from military aircraft are not included in this category but are reported under 1.A.5.b - Other Mobile Sources: Military.

NFR-Code Name of Category Method AD EF Key Source for (by1)
1.A.3.a ii Domestic Civil Aviation T12, T33 NS CS, D
consisting of / including sub-categories
1.A.3.a ii (i) Landing/Take-off (LTO)3 T1, T3 NS CS, D no key source
1.A.3.a ii (ii) Cruise4 T1, T3 NS CS, D no key source

1 T = key source by Trend / L = key source by Level
2 for SO2 and all emissions from aviation gasoline
3 for all emissons depending on altitude, type of engine, etc. and flight stage
4 1.A.3.a ii (i) - LTO: included in national totals
5 1.A.3.a ii (ii) - Cruise: not included in national totals

Method

For a detailed description of the methods used for emission calculations, see main chapter 1.A.3.a - Civil Aviation.

Actitvity Data

Table: 1.A.3.a ii over-all jet kerosene consumption 1990-2010, [TJ]

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
29,219 26,680 25,639 24,528 24,652 25,193 26,302 28,223 28,209 29,006
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
30,684 29,024 28,022 27,594 27,238 28,671 30,411 30,440 30,225 28,301
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
26,622

italic figures: recalculated against submission 2011

Table: 1.A.3.a i (i) and (ii) jet kerosene consumption 1990-2010, [TJ]

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
1.A.3.a ii (i) 9,159 8,674 8,919 8,441 8,374 8,910 8,853 9,285 8,970 9,028
1.A.3.a ii (ii) 20,060 18,006 16,719 16,087 16,279 16,283 17,449 18,939 19,238 19,977
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
1.A.3.a ii (i) 9,541 9,159 8,879 8,828 8,951 9,344 9,723 9,985 10,172 9,527
1.A.3.a ii (ii) 21,143 19,865 19,144 18,765 18,287 19,327 20,688 20,355 20.053 18,774
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
1.A.3.a ii (i) 9,514
1.A.3.a ii (ii) 17.108

italic figures: recalculated against submission 2011

As mentioned above, the use of aviation gasoline is - due to a lack of further information - assumed to take place in national aviation only and only within the LTO-range below 3,000 feet operating altitude. As soon as better data allows the split-up of the consumption of aviation gasoline onto national and international aviation and onto both flight phases, Germany will accordingly adjust its inventory.

Table: Annual avgas consumption 1990-2010, [TJ]

19901 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
1.A.3.a ii (i) 2.438 2.395 1.698 1.219 1.175 1.142 946 1.162 1.029 1.110
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
1.A.3.a ii (i) 1.120 984 823 766 659 698 653 611 638 594
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
1.A.3.a ii (i) 568

italic figures: recalculated against submission 2011

Emission factors

All emission factors used for emission reporting were ascertained within UBA project FKZ 360 16 029 [3].
For more details, see superordinate chapter on 1.A.3.a - Civil Aviation.

Emission factors 2010 1

Main Pollutants Particulate Matter Heavy Metals Persistent Organic Pollutants
NEC Other PM2.5 ≤ PM10 ≤ TSP Main HM Other HM PAH Dioxins & Furans
Pollutant NH3 NMVOC NOx SO2 CO PM2.5 PM10 TSP Pb Cd Hg As - Zn B[a]P B[b]F B[k]F I[1,2,3-cd]P ∑PAH PCDD/F
Unit kg/TJ kg/TJ g/TJ mg/TJ µg/TJ
1.A.3.a ii (i) 4.00 42.62 243.49 4.65 371.99 1.97 1.97 1.97 NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE
1.A.3.a ii (ii) 4.00 10.30 299.51 4.65 54.00 4.65 4.65 4.65 NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE
1.A.3.a ii (i) - Avgas NE 300.00 283.06 0.51 14,854 NE NE 15.17 2 9.48 3 NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE NE

1 EFs 2010: ascertained during UBA research project FKZ 360 16 029 [3]
2 AvGas EF(TSP): calculated from the EF(Pb): EF(TSP) = 1.6 x EF(Pb) - see road transport
3 AvGas EF(Pb): calculated from the average lead content of AvGas 100 LL (low-lead): 0.56 g Pb/liter
AvGas 100 LL is sort of aviation gasoline mostly used in Western Europe

Trend discussion for Key Sources

NFR 1.A.3.a ii (i) - Domestic Civil Aviation - LTO is no key source.
NFR 1.A.3.a ii (ii) - Domestic Civil Aviation - Cruise is no part of national emission totals and hence not included in the key source analysis.

Recalculations

AD: Several revisions regarding primary activity data (National Energy Balance 2008 & 2009) and ratios or shares used (Eurocontrol: domestic shares 2007-2009, Federal Statistical Office: number of flights and LTOs) led to slight changes in emission estimates 1990-2006 and more significant changes in etsimates 2007-2009.

Here, a revision of the models used by Eurocontrol resulted in adapted domestic shares for the years from 2007.

Table: Recalculations of domestic share

1990 1995 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Submission 2012 [TJ] 15.11 10.79 10.32 10.02 9.75 9.46 8.61 8.34 8.42 8.10 7.99 7.71
Submission 2011 [TJ] 15.11 10.79 10.32 10.02 9.75 9.46 8.61 8.34 8.42 8.19 7.90 7.66
absolute change [TJ] 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 -0.09 +0.09 +0.05
relative change [%] 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 -1.04 +1.13 +0.67

italic figures: recalculated against submission 2011: 2008-2009: due to recalculated Eurocontrol-data

The revised domestic shares as well as the revision of National Energy Balances 2008 and '09 caused resulted in the following corrections within the 1.A.3.a.ii kerosene consumption:

Table: Recalculations of 1.A.3.a.ii kerosene consumption

Unit 1990 1995 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 1 2008 1, 2 2009 1, 2
Submission 2012 [TJ] 29,219 25,193 30,684 29,024 28,022 27,594 27,238 28,671 30,411 30,340 30,225 28,301
Submission 2011 [TJ] 29,219 25,193 30,684 29,024 28,022 27,594 27,238 28,671 30,411 30,658 30,028 28,244
absolute change [TJ] 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 -318.50 +197.08 +57.25
relative change [%] 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 -1.04 +0.66 +0.20%

italic figures: recalculated against submission 2011: 1 2007-2009: due to revised domestic share, 2 2008-2009: due to revised National Energy Balance

In addition to the revision of consumption data and domestic share, the time series for LTO ratios was recalculated within TREMOD AV based upon newly available information from the Federal Statistical Office:

Table: Recalculated LTO ratio for 1.A.3.a ii - Domestic Civil Aviation 1990-2009

Unit 1990 1995 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Submission 2011 [TJ] 8.06 8.64 8.14 8.23 7.94 8.15 8.34 8.23 8.24 8.28 8.40 8.22
Submission 2011 [TJ] 8.06 8.64 8.14 8.23 7.94 8.15 8.34 8.23 8.24 8.28 8.36 8.18
absolute change [TJ] 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 -0.01 0.05 0.04
relative change [%] 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 -0.0 0.57 0.52

Resulting from all revisions and recalculations described for 1.A.3.a and for 1.A.3.a ii above, the specific activity data for 1.A.3.a ii (i) - Domestic civil aviation - LTO and 1.A.3.a ii (ii) - Domestic civil aviation - Cruise was recalculated as follows:

Table: Recalculated activity data for 1.A.3.a ii (i) (LTO) consumption data 1990-2009

Unit 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
Submission 2012 [TJ] 9,159 8,674 8,919 8,441 8,374 8,910 8,853 9,285 8,970 9,028
Submission 2011 [TJ] 9,156 8,668 8,914 8,436 8,367 8,904 8,846 9,277 8,962 9,021
absolute change [TJ] 3.47 6.08 5.54 4.63 6.48 5.66 6.57 7.77 7.97 7.52
relative change [%] 0.04 0.07% 0.06 0.05 0.08 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.08%
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Submission 2012 [TJ] 9,541 9,159 8,879 8,828 8,951 9,344 9,723 9,985 10,172 9,527
Submission 2011 [TJ] 9,536 9,153 8,872 8,822 8,937 9,329 9,708 9,975 10,159 9,517
absolute change [TJ] 4.48 5.80 6.13 5.91 14.00 14.57 14.59 10.14 13.14 10.18
relative change [%] 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.07 0.16 0.16 0.15 0.10 0.13 0.11

Table: Recalculated activity data for 1.A.3.a ii (ii) (Cruise) consumption data 1990-2009

Unit 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
Submission 2012 [TJ] 20,060 18,006 16,719 16,087 16,279 16,283 17,449 18,939 19,238 19,977
Submission 2011 [TJ] 20,064 18,012 16,725 16,091 16,285 16,289 17,456 18,947 19,246 19,985
absolute change [TJ] -3.47 -6.08 -5.54 -4.63 -6.48 -5.65 -6.57 -7.77 -7.97 -7.52
relative change [%] -0.02 -0.03 -0.03 -0.03 -0.04 -0.03 -0.04 -0.04 -0.04 -0.04
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 1 2008 2009
Submission 2012 [TJ] 21,143 19,865 19,144 18,765 18,287 19,327 20,688 20,355 20,053 18,774
Submission 2011 [TJ] 21,148 19,871 19,150 18,771 18,301 19,342 20,702 20,683 19,869 18,727
absolute change [TJ] -4.49 -5.80 -6.13 -5.91 -14.01 -14.57 -14.59 -328.64 183.94 47.07
relative change [%] -0.02 -0.03 -0.03 -0.03 -0.08 -0.08 -0.07 -1.59 0.93 0.25

The entire time series of 1.A.3.a ii (i) (LTO) consumption is calculated using information on average fuel consumption per LTO cycle. 1.A.3.a ii (ii) (cruise) consumption is then calculated as the difference of total 1.A.3.a ii consumption minus 1.A.3.a ii (i) (LTO) consumption. Therefore, significant changes in primary AD only effect 1.A.3.a ii (ii) consumption data.

Table: Recalculated avgas consumption data 1990-2009

Unit 1990 1995 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Submission 2012 [TJ] 2,438 1,142 1,120 984 823 766 659 698 653 611 638 594
Submission 2011 [TJ] 2,438 1,142 1,120 984 823 766 659 698 653 611 638 595
absolute change [TJ] 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 -0.17 -0.62
relative change [%] 0,00 0,00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 -0.03 -0.10

EF: Furthermore, due to revised Federal Statistical Office data on number of LTOs and flights, tier3 EF used vary slightly from the respective values used for submission 2011.

As result of the changes described, emission estimates were recalculated for both 1.A.3.a ii (i) and 1.A.3.a ii (ii).
For information on the impacts on 1990 and 2009 emission estimates, please see the pollutant specific recalculation tables following chapter 11.1 - Recalculations.

Uncertainties

For uncertainties information, see main chapter 1.A.3.a - Civil Aviation.

Planned improvements

At the moment, no category specific improvements are planned.

FAQs

Why does the party use similar emission factors for estimating emissions of PM2.5 , PM10 , and TSP from jet kerosene?

According to the 2007 EMEP Corinair Guidebook, PM emissions from aircraft engines can be considered as PM2.5:

From combustion science principles it is anticipated that the PM2.5/PM10 ratio for aircraft engines will be similar to, or higher than, that for internal combustion engines. Given that the ratio for IC engines is found to be 94%, it is reasonable to assume that for aircraft their PM emissions can be considered as PM2.5. The PM2.5/PM10 ratio most commonly used when reporting values within EMEP is 1.0. This is the relationship assumed in this guidebook.

Why are the SO2 emission factors for jet kerosene the same for national and international civil aviation as well as for LTO and Cruise whereas the EFs of other pollutants are different for all four sub-categories?

Emissions of NMVOC, CO or NOx depend strongly on parameters as engine type and altitude (and therewith on atmospheric pressure, environmental temperature, humidity, etc.). As the average fleets operating in national and international aviation are assumed to be not equal (average size of aircraft or engine), the EFs vary for both national and international aviation and flight stages (LTO, Cruise). In contrast, emissions of sulphur dioxide (SO2) depend exclusively on the sulphur content of the fuel in question which is also object of regional fluctuations.

Why are emissions from aviation gasoline reported using a Tier 1 approach whereas for jet kerosene Tier 2a has been applied?

For reporting emissions from the cosumption of jet kerosene, the party uses an annual split factor provided by Eurocontrol to devide the total amount of kerosene used (from Energy Balances & Official oil data for the Federal Republic of Germany) onto national and international civil aviation. For aviation gasoline, such split factor does not exist. - Furthermore, the deviation of kerosene used onto flight stages LTO and Cruise has been carried out using data on numbers of take-offs from German airports provided by the German Federal Statistical Office. At the moment, such data is not available for aircraft using aviation gasoline.

On which basis does the party estimate the reported lead emissions from aviation gasoline?

assumption by party: aviation gasoline = AvGas 100 LL
(AvGas 100 LL is the predominant sort of aviation gasoline in Western Europe)
lead content of AvGas 100 LL: 0.56 g lead/liter (as tetra ethyl lead)

2007 EMEP Corinair Guidebook:

Lead is added to aviation gasoline to increase the octane number. The lead content is higher than in leaded car gasoline,…

The applied procedure is similar to the one used for calculating lead emissions from leaded gasoline used in road transport. (There, in contrast to aviation gasoline, the lead content constantly declined resulting in a ban of leaded gasoline in 1997.)

On which basis does the party estimate the reported TSP emissions from aviation gasoline?

The TSP emissions calculated depend directly on the reported lead emissions: The emission factor for TSP is 1.6 times the emission factor used for lead: EF(TSP) = 1.6 x EF(Pb).
The applied procedure is similar to the one used for calculating TSP emissions from leaded gasoline used in road transport.


Bibliography
1. AGEB, 2011: Arbeitsgemeinschaft Energiebilanzen (Hrsg.): Energiebilanz für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland; URL: http://www.ag-energiebilanzen.de/viewpage.php?idpage=63, (Aufruf: 12.01.2012), Köln, Berlin.
2. BAFA, 2011: Bundesamt für Wirtschaft und Ausfuhrkontrolle, Amtliche Mineralöldaten für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland;
URL: http://www.bafa.de/bafa/de/energie/mineraloel/amtliche_mineraloeldaten/index.html, (Aufruf: 12.01.2012), Eschborn.
3. Ifeu & Öko-Institut, 2010: Implementierung eines eigenständigen Moduls zur Berechnung des Flugverkehrs in das bestehende TREMOD-System, vorläufiger Endbericht zum F+E-Vorhaben 360 16 029, Berlin & Heidelberg, November 2010; URL: http://webdev3/websites/I2-6/projekte/Endberichte%20%20Dokumente/FKZ%20360%2016%20029%20(Implementierung%20des%20Flugverkehrs%20in%20TREMOD)/03_Endbericht_(Draft).pdf
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