4.D Agricultural Soils

Last updated on 24 Jan 2013 17:05 by Kevin Hausmann

NFR-Code Name of Category Method AD EF Key Source for (by)
4.D Agricultural Soils
consisting of / including source categories
4.D 1 a Synthetic N-fertilizers T2 (NH3), T1 (for NOx) NS D (NH3), D[2] (NOx) NOx (L), NH3 (L/T)
4.D 2 a Farm-level agricultural operations including storage, handling and transport of agricultural products T3 (NH3); T2 (for NOx); T1 (TSP, PM) RS, NS, M (for NOx) D (for NOx) NOx (L), TSP (L), PM10 (L/T)
4.D 2 b Off-farm storage, handling and transport of bulk agricultural products - - - -
4.D 2 c N-excretion on pasture range and paddock T1 (for NOx), T3 (NH3) RS D -

Country specifics

NH3 and NOx

In 2010 Agricultural Soils contribute 13.9 % to the total agricultural NH3 emissions in Germany which is equal to ca. 71 Gg NH3. The main pollutant within agricultural soils is the application of N-fertilizer (4.D 1a), contributing 86.8 % of NH3 emissions (~ 62 Gg). The excretion on pastures (4.D 2c) and the growth of legumes (4.D 2a) have shares of 11.9 % (~8 Gg) and 1.3 % (~ 1 Gg), respectively. NH3 emissions from the application of manure is included in sector 4B.

Agricultural soils make up 98.6 % (102 Gg) of the total of NOx emissions in the agricultural sector (104 Gg). The NOx emissions from agricultural soils are mostly due to application of mineral fertilizer (60.6 %) and manure (36.3 %) while excretions on pastures are of minor importance (3.1 %). NOx emissions from crop residues and biological N fixation (legumes) are not reported as neither IPCC nor EMEP (2009) provide a calculation methodology.

NMVOC

NMVOC emissions from agriculture are not reported for this submission as the methodology used in previous submissions has been evaluated as not adequate by international experts (see Haenel et al., (2012) [1]).

PM2,5 & PM10

In Germany, agricultural soils contribute 11.8 % (<1 Gg) and 48.4 % (~19 Gg) to the total agricultural PM2,5, and PM10, emissions, respectively. The emissions are reported in category 4D2a.

4.D 1a Synthetic N-fertilizers

Activity Data

German statistics report the amount of fertilizers sold. Assuming that the change of fertilizers stocked is small compared with the amount of fertilizers sold, the amount of fertilizer sold is taken to be the amount of fertilizer applied.

The amount of N fertilizer applied in the year 2010 is 1,569 Gg N.

Methodology

NH3 emissions are calculated using a detailed methodology according to EMEP(2009)-4D-12ff [10]. For NH3 emissions, various fertilizer types are distinguished. Regions are differentiated according to their mean spring temperatures. For details see Haenel et al. (2012) [1].

For NOx, the simpler methodology described in EMEP(2009) [10]-B1010-15 is applied.

Emission factors

The emission factors for NH3 depend on fertilizer type and by mean spring temperature. The calculations were made with region specific spring temperatures. The mean spring temperature in Germany is around 9°C. The relevant emission factors according to EMEP(2009)-4D-14[10] and a mean spring temperature of 9°C are listed below in table 1.

Table 1: NH3-EF for mineral fertilizers

Mineral fertilizers, emission factors (rounded) for NH3 emissions in kg kg-1 N
Fertilizer type EF(9°C)
ammonium sulphate 0.0133
ammonium nitrate 0.0073
calcium ammonium nitrate 0.0073
anhydrous ammonia 0.0194
urea 0.1138
nitrogen solutions 0.0581
ammonium phosphates 0.0133
other NK and NPK 0.0073
nitrate only (e.g. KNO3) 0.0054

For NOx, the simpler methodology by EMEP(2009)-4D-10ff [10] was used and the NOx emission factor was taken from Table 3-1.

Table 2: NOx-EF

Emission factor kg kg-1 NOx-N
EFfert, NOx 0.012

4.D 2a Farm-level agricultural operations including storage, handling and transport of agricultural products

Activity data

Activity data regarding emissions of NH3 and NOx comprise nitrogen fixed in legumes during cultivation and nitrogen in manure applied. Note that no NOx is calculated for legumes and that NH3 from application of manure is included under 4.B.

Table 3: AD for the estimation of NH3 and NOx emissions.

Activity data
1990 1995 2000 2005 2010
Gg N
Application of manure 1,158.8 1,021.0 986.3 951.5 940.1
N fixed in legumes 140.4 95.6 95.6 94.7 77.05

The activity data used for the estimation of PM emissions is presented in table 4.

Table 4: AD for the estimation of PM emission

Area in 1000*ha
1990 1995 2000 2005 2010
Arable land 11,971.3 11,834.5 11,803.5 11,903.3 11,846.7
Horticultural land 84.8 75.6 88.2 99.6 107.3
total 12,056.12 11,910.1 11,891.8 12,002.9 11,954.0

Application of manure

NH3 emissions from the application of manure are reported under 4.B.
NOx emissions from the application of manure are considered to be proportional to the amount of N applied.

Activity data

(see table 3)

Methodology

The inventory calculates NO emissions which are subsequently converted into NOx emissions by multiplying with 46/30. The simpler methodology for the application of mineral fertilizer as described in EMEP(2009)-4D-10ff [10] is used, as no specific methodology is available for manure application.

Emission factors

As the method for manure application is used, the NO emission factor was taken from the respective Table 3-1 in EMEP(2009)-4D [10]. The effective NOx emission factor can be derived by multiplying the NO emission factor with 46/30. Table 6 shows both emission factors.

Table 5: EF for the estimation of NOx emissions

Emission factor kg kg-1 NO-N kg kg-1 NOx-N
EF 0.012 0.0184

N fixation of legumes

Biological N fixation worth considering takes place in legumes only. First and foremost, emissions of N species from legumes are related to the amount of N fixed. In Germany, this is assumed to be proportional to the area covered with legumes and the plant specific nitrogen fixation rate. The German inventory also takes clover-grass and alfalfa-grass mixtures into account. Double counting of the relevant areas is avoided.

Activity data

The amount of nitrogen fixed biologically is considered the actual activity. It is obtained from the area cultivated with a legume and the specific fixation rate of this legume (see table above).

Methodology

A detailed calculation procedure for ammonia is described in EMEP(2007)-B1020-12 [9].

Emission factors

The emission factor for NH3 base on a detailed methodology from EMEP(2007)-B1020-12[9].

Table 6: EF N-fixation of legumes

Emission factor
EFN, NH3 0.01 kg kg-1 NH3-N

Cultivation of arable land (PM2,5,PM10)

During cultivation of arable and grassland, particulate matter is emitted.

Activity data

The areas of arable land are provided by official statistics (see table 4). The areas of horticultural land are regarded as arable land.

Methodology

As the Tier 2 methodology described in EMEP(2009)-4D-13 [10] cannot be used due to lack of input data, the Tier 1 methodology described in EMEP(2009)-4D-10 f [10] is used. The approach deals with arable land only. It only allows for a first estimate of the order of magnitude to be expected for these emissions.
As no emission factor is available for TSP, TSP is assumed to equal the emission of PM10.

Emission factors

Emission factors factor from EMEP(2009)-4D-11 [10] are used.

Table 7: EF for PM

Emission factor kg ha-1 a-1
EFPM10 1.56
EFPM2.5 0.06

4.D 2c N-excretion on pasture range and paddock

The calculation of NH3 and NOx emission resulting from animal excreta dropped during grazing is described in the following. For details see Haenel et al. (2012) [1].

Activity data

Activity data for NH3 emissions during grazing is the amount of TAN excreted on pasture. It is proportional to the total TAN excretion of an animal; the factor of proportionality is defined as the fraction of time the animal spends on pasture. Activity data for NOx emissions during grazing is the amount of N excreted on pasture. It is proportional to the total N excretion of an animal; the factor of proportionality is the same as for TAN. For details see Haenel et al. (2012) [1]).

Table 8: AD N excretion

N excretion on pasture range and paddock in Gg N
1990 1995 2000 2005 2010
Dairy cows 110.9 74.0 64.0 54.7 49.7
Other cattle 77.5 78.6 81.7 72.2 72.9
Buffalo 0 0 0.008 0.016 0.031
Sheep 12.7 11.6 10.7 10.4 8.8
Goats 0.34 0.38 0.53 0.64 0.56
Horses 4.9 6.2 5.0 5.0 4.6
Mules and asses 0.058 0.058 0.058 0.058 0.058
Swine 0 0 0 0 0

Method

NH3 emissions from grazing are calculated by applying the appropriate emission factor (see Table 11) to the amount of TAN excreted on pasture. NO emissions are proportional to the amount of N excreted on pasture. The factor of proportionality is the emission factor (see Table 9).

Emission Factors

The emission factors for NH3 are taken from EMEP(2009)-4B-26 [10]. They relate to the amount of TAN excreted on pasture. The emission factor for NOx is taken from EMEP(2007)-B1020-12 [9]. It relates to the amount of N excreted on pasture.

Table 9: EF for NH3 and NOx

Emission factor
EFN, NH3 Dairy cows 0.1 kg kg-1 NH3-N
EFN, NH3 Other cattel 0.06 kg kg-1 NH3-N
EFN, NH3 Horses, Mulles and asses 0.35 kg kg-1 NH3-N
EFN, NH3 Buffalo 0.13 kg kg-1 NH3-N
EFN, NH3 Sheep, Goats 0.09 kg kg-1 NH3-N
EFN, NOx 0.007 kg kg-1 NOx-N
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