1.A.4.a.i Commercial and Institutional: Stationary Combustion

Last updated on 24 Jan 2013 17:05 by Kevin Hausmann

Short description

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The source catagory 1.A.4.a.i - Commercial and Institutional: Stationary Combustion emissions from commercial and institutional combustion installations are reported.

NFR-Code Name of Category Method AD EF Key Source for (by1)
1.A.4.a i Commercial and Institutional: Stationary Combustion T2, T3 NS CS NMVOC & CO (T) - PM2.5, PM10, TSP (T) - PCDD/F (L), PAH (T)

Method

Activity data

See 1.A.4. - Other: Stationary Combustion.

Emission factors

See 1.A.4. - Other: Stationary Combustion.

Table: Emission factors for commercial and institutional combustion installations

Pollutant NOx SOx NMVOC
Fuel [kg/TJ]
Hard Coal 76 332 48
Natural Wood 88 8.4 99
Light Heating Oil 44 60 2.6
Gaseous Fuel 27 0.5 0.36

Trend Discussion for Key Sources

The following charts give an overview and assistance for explainig dominant emission trends of selected pollutants.

Fuel Consumption

Annual fluctuations of all fuel types in source catagory 1.A.4 depend on heat demand subject to winter temperatures. Between 1990 and 2009 the fuel use changed considerably from coal & lignite to natural gas. The consumption of light heating oil decreased as well. As the activity data for light heating oil is based on the sold amount, it fluctuates due to fuel prices and changing storage amounts.

Non-Methane Volatile Organic Compounds - NMVOC and Carbon monoxide - CO

Main driver of the NMVOC and CO emission trends is the decreasing lignite consumption: Since 1990 the fuel use changed from solid fuels causing high NMVOC and CO emissions to gaseous fuels producing much lower emissions.

Particulate Matter - PM2.5 & PM10 & TSP

The emission trends for PM2.5, PM10, and TSP are also influenced severely by decreasing coal consumption in small combustion plants, particularly in the period from 1990 to 1994. Since 1995 the emission trend hardly changed. Increasing emissions in the last years are caused by the rising wood combustion.

Persistent Organic Pollutants

The main driver of the POPs emission trend are coal and fuelwood. PCDD/F emissions decrease from 1990 to 2010 due to decreasing lignite consumption. The use of firewood and therefore PCDD/F emissions from wood combustion show a constant development.

Recalculations

Recalculations were necessary for the latest reference year (2009) due to the availability of the National Energy Balance. Germany has a federal structure which causes a time lack of the National Energy Balance. Therefore recalculations are always necessary.

Planned improvements

It´s planned to improve the time series consistency of all emission factors und to evaluate the results of a new study in order to revise all activty data.

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