1.A.3.b.ii Exhaust Emissions from Light Duty Vehicles

Last updated on 24 Jan 2013 17:05 by Kevin Hausmann

Short description

In sub-categories 1.A.3.b ii - Road transport:Light duty vehicles emissions from fuel combustion in Light Duty Vehicles (LDVs) are reported.

NFR-Code Name of Category Method AD EF Key Source for (by1)
1.A.3.b ii Light duty vehicles T3 NS CS NOx (L), PM2.5 (L/T), PM10 (T)

1 T = key source by Trend / L = key source by Level

Method

Activity data

Table: Annual fuel consumption of Light Duty Vehicles, 1990-2010, [TJ]

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
Diesel oil 238,741 251,070 258,764 278,154 274,460 274,788 276,331 269,841 269,254 289,820
Gasoline 1,290,286 1,293,712 1,307,632 1,316,673 1,249,789 1,273,250 1,272,995 1,270,273 1,273,384 1,272,804
LPG 138 137 229 184 184 138 115 106 106 100
CNG 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Biodiesel 0 0 0 0 0 429 586 1,006 1,074 1,419
Bio-Ethanol 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Diesel oil 290,517 326,775 355,828 359,791 416,359 420,978 412,360 424,978 442,390 462,132
Gasoline 1,209,505 1,172,805 1,139,824 1,083,886 1,047,967 968,038 907,241 872,803 834,545 810,087
LPG 94 569 607 694 1,887 2,357 4,605 8,942 15,652 23,842
CNG 0 0 0 0 0 2,843 5,211 4,089 4,882 5,300
Biodiesel 3,218 4,985 6,583 9,992 14,544 28,058 49,636 56,526 43,802 37,048
Bio-Ethanol 0 0 0 0 1,118 6,650 13,078 11,793 16,012 23,150
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
Diesel oil 469,085
Gasoline 773,408
LPG 21,836
CNG 9,742
Biodiesel 36,471
Bio-Ethanol 29,680

For information on mileage, please refer to sub-chapters on emissions from tyre & brake wear and road abrasion.

Emission factors

Emissions factors for exhaust emissions from road transport are taken from the 'Handbook Emission Factors for Road Transport' (HBEFA, version 3.1) where they are provided on a Tier 3 level mostly and processed within the TREMOD software used by the inventory compiler. Therefore, it is not possible to display them in a clear and comprehendible table. - For further information, please see the Handbook Emission Factors for Road Transport and the TREMOD software.

Trend discussion for Key Sources

NFR 1.A.3.b ii - Exhaust emissions from light duty vehicles is key source for emissions of

  • NOx regarding the emissions' level,
  • PM2.5 regarding the emissions' level and trend, and
  • PM10 regarding the emissions' trend.

Nitrogen oxides (NOx)

NOx emissions increased steadily until 2002 following the shift to diesel engines. During the last ten years, emissions decline steadily due to catalytic-converter use and engine improvements resulting from ongoing tightening of emissions laws and improved fuel quality.

Particulate matter (PM2.5, PM10, and TSP)

Starting in the middle of the 1990s, a so-called "diesel boom" began, leading to a switch from gasoline to diesel powered passenger cars. As the newly registered diesel cars had to meet the EURO2 standard (in force since 1996/'97) with a PM limit value less than half the EURO1 value, the growing diesel consumption was overcompensated qickly by the mitigation technologies implemented due to the new EURO norm. During the following years, new EURO norms came into force. With the still ongoing "diesel boom" those norms led to a stabilisation (EURO3, 2000/'01) of emissions and to another strong decrease of PM emissions (EURO4, 2005/'06), respectively. Over-all, the increased consumption of diesel in passenger cars was overastimated by the implemented mitigation technologies.

Recalculations

Recalculations were carried out impacting all pollutants due to a regular revision of the HBEFA (Handbook Emission Factors for Road Transport 3.1) and the TREMOD software.

AD: Activity data were revised within the TREMOD model used by the inventory compiler as well as in the CSE data warehouse. Here, changes in data fore 1990 - 2008 result mostly from reallocations of consumption shares between the different vehicle types and classes with over-all sums remaining nearly unchanged whereas changes in 2009 data result from a revised Energy Balance.

Table: Revised consumption data

Diesel oil
Unit 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
Submission 2012 [TJ] 22,936 28,051 33,595 42,279 49,012 54,307 59,609 65,213 70,880 76,089
Submission 2011 [TJ] 26,075 31,602 37,797 47,618 56,998 63,315 69,945 76,972 84,166 90,834
absolute change [TJ] -3,139 -3,551 -4,202 -5,338 -7,986 -9,008 -10,336 -11,760 -13,286 -14,744
relative change [%] -12.04 -11.24 -11.12 -11.21 -14.01 -14.23 -14.78 -15.28 -15.79 -16.23
Unit 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Submission 2012 [TJ] 78,226 82,016 86,045 85,976 87,736 87,557 84,450 84,730 85,494 85,090
Submission 2011 [TJ] 93,836 98,637 103,574 103,750 106,125 107,202 104,530 105,262 108,179 106,535
absolute change [TJ] -15,610 -16,621 -17,529 -17,775 -18,389 -19,645 -20,080 -20,532 -22,685 -21,445
relative change [%] -16.64 -16.85 -16.92 -17.13 -17.33 -18.33 -19.21 -19.51 -20.97 -20.13
Gasoline
Unit 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
Submission 2012 [TJ] 24,004 23,465 22,334 19,897 15,306 14,577 14,126 13,944 13,569 13,785
Submission 2011 [TJ] 29,240 28,430 27,107 24,160 17,789 16,970 16,372 16,126 15,647 15,793
absolute change [TJ] -5,236 -4,966 -4,773 -4,264 -2,483 -2,392 -2,246 -2,183 -2,079 -2,008
relative change [%] -17.91 -17.47 -17.61 -17.65 -13.96 -14.10 -13.72 -13.54 -13.28 -12.71
Unit 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Submission 2012 [TJ] 13,365 12,112 11,529 10,452 9,631 8,980 8,428 7,890 6,966 6,593
Submission 2011 [TJ] 15,242 13,691 12,994 11,736 10,742 9,944 9,265 8,655 7,691 7,147
absolute change [TJ] -1,877 -1,579 -1,465 -1,284 -1,111 -964 -837 -766 -725 -554
relative change [%] -12.31 -11.53 -11.27 -10.94 -10.34 -9.69 -9.03 -8.84 -9.43 -7.75
Biodiesel
Unit 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
Submission 2012 [TJ] 0 0 0 0 0 85 126 243 283 372
Submission 2011 [TJ] 0 0 0 0 0 99 148 287 336 445
absolute change [TJ] 0 0 0 0 0 -14 -22 -44 -53 -72
relative change [%] -14.24 -14.77 -15.28 -15.78 -16.23
Unit 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Submission 2012 [TJ] 867 1,251 1,592 2,388 3,065 5,836 10,165 11,270 8,465 6,822
Submission 2011 [TJ] 1,040 1,505 1,916 2,881 3,706 7,138 12,569 14,004 10,709 8,527
absolute change [TJ] -173 -254 -324 -494 -641 -1,303 -2,404 -2,734 -2,244 -1,705
relative change [%] -16.64 -16.85 -16.96 -17.13 -17.30 -18.25 -19.13 -19.52 -20.95 -20.00
Bio-ethanol
Unit 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
Submission 2012 [TJ] 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Submission 2011 [TJ] 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
absolute change [TJ] 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
relative change [%]
Unit 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Submission 2012 [TJ] 0 0 0 0 10 62 121 107 134 188
Submission 2011 [TJ] 0 0 0 0 12 69 135 118 149 206
absolute change [TJ] 0 0 0 0 -1 -7 -13 -11 -15 -18
relative change [%] -11.32 -10.54 -9.91 -9.72 -10.30 -8.65

EF: Emission factors were revised broadly within the 'Handbook Emission Factors for Road Transport' (HBEFA, version 3.1) and, hence, within TREMOD. Due to the number of EFs effected, it is not possible to present old and revised values in a proper way. For further information please refer to HBEFA 3.1 here.

For pollutant specific information on qualitative and quantitative impacts on 1990 and 2009 emission estimates see chapter 11. Recalculations and the following chapters.

Uncertainties

Uncertainty estimates for activity data of mobile sources derive from research project FKZ 360 16 023: "Ermittlung der Unsicherheiten der mit den Modellen TREMOD und TREMOD-MM berechneten Luftschadstoffemissionen des landgebundenen Verkehrs in Deutschland". For detailled information, please refer to the project's final report here (German version only!)

Uncertainty estimates for emission factors for all 1.A.3.b sub-categories were compiled during the PAREST research project. Here, the final report has not yet been published.

Planned improvements

At the moment, due to lack of information consumptions of LPG and CNG and resulting emissions are assigned to passenger cars (1.A.3.b.i) only. Here, a more realistic breakdown will be implemented as soon as data is available.

FAQs


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