1.A.3.b.i Exhaust Emissions From Passenger Cars

Last updated on 24 Jan 2013 17:05 by Kevin Hausmann

Short description

In sub-categories 1.A.3.b i - Road transport: Passenger cars emissions from fuel combustion in Passenger Cars (PCs) are reported.

NFR-Code Name of Category Method AD EF Key Source for (by1)
1.A.3.b i Passenger Cars T12, T3 NS CS NOx (L/T), NMVOC (L/T), CO (L/T), PM2.5 & PM10 (L/T)

1 T = key source by Trend / L = key source by Level
2 T1: only for natural gas where activity data exist only on tier1 level

Method

For all fuels despite natural gas, emissions are calculated within TREMOD, using a tier3 approach.
AD for natural gas is not yet implemented within TREMOD. Hence, emissions have been calculated separately using a tier1 approach.

Detailed information on the methods applied is provided in the main chapter on 1.A.3.b - Road Transport.

Activity data

Table: Annual fuel consumption of passenger cars, 1990-2010, [TJ]

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
Diesel oil 238,741 251,070 258,764 278,154 274,460 274,788 276,331 269,841 269,254 289,820
Gasoline 1,290,286 1,293,712 1,307,632 1,316,673 1,249,789 1,273,250 1,272,995 1,270,273 1,273,384 1,272,804
LPG 138 137 229 184 184 138 115 106 106 100
CNG 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Biodiesel 0 0 0 0 0 429 586 1,006 1,074 1,419
Bio-Ethanol 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Diesel oil 290,517 326,775 355,828 359,791 416,359 420,978 412,360 424,978 442,390 462,132
Gasoline 1,209,505 1,172,805 1,139,824 1,083,886 1,047,967 968,038 907,241 872,803 834,545 810,087
LPG 94 569 607 694 1,887 2,357 4,605 8,942 15,652 23,842
CNG 0 0 0 0 0 2,843 5,211 4,089 4,882 5,300
Biodiesel 3,218 4,985 6,583 9,992 14,544 28,058 49,636 56,526 43,802 37,048
Bio-Ethanol 0 0 0 0 1,118 6,650 13,078 11,793 16,012 23,150
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
Diesel oil 469,085
Gasoline 773,408
LPG 21,836
CNG 9,742
Biodiesel 36,471
Bio-Ethanol 29,680

For information on mileage, please refer to sub-chapters on emissions from tyre & brake wear and road abrasion.

Emission factors

Emissions factors for exhaust emissions from road transport are taken from the 'Handbook Emission Factors for Road Transport' (HBEFA, version 3.1) where they are provided on a tier3 level mostly and processed within the TREMOD software used by the party. Therefore, it is not possible to display them in a clear and comprehendible table. - For further information, please see the Handbook Emission Factors for Road Transport and the TREMOD software.

Trend discussion for Key Categories

NFR 1.A.3.b i - Exhaust emissions from passenger cars is key source for emissions of

  • NH3 regarding level and trend,
  • NOx regarding level and trend,
  • NMVOC regarding level and trend,
  • CO regarding level and trend,
  • PM2.5 and PM10 regarding level and trend

Non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and carbon monoxide (CO)

Since 1990, exhaust emissions of nitrogen oxides, NMVOC, and carbon monoxide have decreased sharply due to catalytic-converter use and engine improvements resulting from ongoing tightening of emissions laws and improved fuel quality.

Ammonia (NH3) and sulphur dioxide (SO2 )

As for the entire road transport sector, the trends for sulphur dioxide (SO2) and ammonia (NH3) exhaust emissions from passenger cars show charcteristics very different from those shown above: Here, the strong dependence on increasing fuel qualities (sulphur content) leads to an cascaded downward trend of SO2 emissions , influenced only slightly by increases in fuel consumption and mileage. For ammonia emissions the increasing use of catalytic converters in gasoline driven cars in the 1990s lead to a steep increase whereas both the technical development of the converters and the ongoing shift from gasoline to diesel cars resulted in decreasing emissions in the following years.

Particulate Matter (PM2.5, PM10, and TSP)

(from fuel combustion only; no wear/abrasion included)

Starting in the middle of the 1990s, a so-called "diesel boom" began, leading to a switch from gasoline to diesel powered passenger cars. As the newly registered diesel cars had to meet the EURO2 standard (in force since 1996/'97) with a PM limit value less than half the EURO1 value, the growing diesel consumption was overcompensated qickly by the mitigation technologies implemented due to the new EURO norm. During the following years, new EURO norms came into force. With the still ongoing "diesel boom" those norms led to a stabilisation (EURO3, 2000/'01) of emissions and to another strong decrease of PM emissions (EURO4, 2005/'06), respectively. Over-all, the increased consumption of diesel in passenger cars was overastimated by the implemented mitigation technologies. The table below shows the evolution of the limit value for particle emissions from passenger cars with diesel engines.

Table: EURO norms and their effect on limit values of PM emissions from diesel passenger cars

exhaust emission standard (EURO norm) Euro 1 Euro 2 Euro 3 Euro 4 Euro 5 Euro 6
in force for type approval since: 1 Jul 1992 1 Jan 1996 1 Jan 2000 1 Jan 2005 1 Sep 2009 1 Sep 2014
in force for initial registration since 1 Jan 1993 1 Jan 1997 1 Jan 2001 1 Jan 2006 1 Jan 2011 1 Jan 2015
resulting PM limit value in [mg/km] 180 80/1001 50 25 5 5

1 for direct injection engines

Recalculations

Recalculations were carried out impacting all pollutants due to a regular revision of the HBEFA (Handbook Emission Factors for Road Transport 3.1) and the TREMOD software.

AD: Activity data were revised within the TREMOD model used by the inventory compiler as well as in the CSE data warehouse. Here, changes in data fore 1990 - 2008 result mostly from reallocations of consumption shares between the different vehicle types and classes with over-all sums remaining nearly unchanged whereas changes in 2009 data result from a revised Energy Balance.

Table: Revised consumption data

Diesel oil
Unit 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
Submission 2012 [TJ] 238,741 251,070 258,764 278,154 274,460 274,788 276,331 269,841 269,254 289,820
Submission 2011 [TJ] 234,443 248,709 259,098 279,790 274,256 276,027 278,424 272,729 272,471 292,831
absolute change [TJ] 4,298 2,361 -334 -1,636 204 -1,239 -2,093 -2,889 -3,217 -3,011
relative change [%] 1.83 0.95 -0.13 -0.58 0.07 -0.45 -0.75 -1.06 -1.18 -1.03
Unit 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Submission 2012 [TJ] 290,517 326,775 355,828 359,791 416,359 420,978 412,360 424,978 442,390 462,132
Submission 2011 [TJ] 294,239 328,475 357,390 362,401 418,668 424,569 415,593 430,306 450,128 470,611
absolute change [TJ] -3,722 -1,700 -1,562 -2,610 -2,308 -3,590 -3,233 -5,328 -7,738 -8,479
relative change [%] -1.26 -0.52 -0.44 -0.72 -0.55 -0.85 -0.78 -1.24 -1.72 -1.80
Gasoline
Unit 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
Submission 2012 [TJ] 1,290,286 1,293,712 1,307,632 1,316,673 1,249,789 1,273,250 1,272,995 1,270,273 1,273,384 1,272,804
Submission 2011 [TJ] 1,278,981 1,282,989 1,298,126 1,308,106 1,242,628 1,265,899 1,265,569 1,262,670 1,265,532 1,264,873
absolute change [TJ] 11,305 10,723 9,506 8,567 7,162 7,352 7,426 7,603 7,852 7,931
relative change [%] 0.88 0.84 0.73 0.65 0.58 0.58 0.59 0.60 0.62 0.63
Unit 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Submission 2012 [TJ] 1,209,505 1,172,805 1,139,824 1,083,886 1,047,967 968,038 907,241 872,803 834,545 810,087
Submission 2011 [TJ] 1,201,974 1,165,468 1,132,526 1,076,731 1,040,754 961,291 900,742 866,907 828,811 803,410
absolute change [TJ] 7,532 7,337 7,298 7,155 7,213 6,747 6,498 5,895 5,734 6,677
relative change [%] 0.63 0.63 0.64 0.66 0.69 0.70 0.72 0.68 0.69 0.83
Biodiesel
Unit 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
Submission 2012 [TJ] 0 0 0 0 0 429 586 1,006 1,074 1,419
Submission 2011 [TJ] 0 0 0 0 0 431 591 1,017 1,087 1,433
absolute change [TJ] 0 0 0 0 0 -2 -4 -11 -13 -15
relative change [%] -0.45 -0.75 -1.06 -1.18 -1.03
Unit 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Submission 2012 [TJ] 3,218 4,985 6,583 9,992 14,544 28,058 49,636 56,526 43,802 37,048
Submission 2011 [TJ] 3,260 5,011 6,612 10,065 14,620 28,270 49,974 57,246 44,559 37,666
absolute change [TJ] -41 -26 -29 -72 -76 -213 -338 -721 -757 -617
relative change [%] -1.26 -0.52 -0.44 -0.72 -0.52 -0.75 -0.68 -1.26 -1.70 -1.64
Bio-ethanol
Unit 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
Submission 2012 [TJ] 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Submission 2011 [TJ] 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
absolute change [TJ] 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
relative change [%]
Unit 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Submission 2012 [TJ] 0 0 0 0 1,118 6,650 13,078 11,793 16,012 23,150
Submission 2011 [TJ] 0 0 0 0 1,121 6,668 13,110 11,827 16,056 23,182
absolute change [TJ] 0 0 0 0 -3 -18 -32 -34 -44 -32
relative change [%] -0.28 -0.27 -0.25 -0.29 -0.28 -0.14
CNG
Unit 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
Submission 2012 [TJ] 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Submission 2011 [TJ] 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
absolute change [TJ] 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
relative change [%]
Unit 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Submission 2012 [TJ] 0 0 0 0 0 2,843 5,211 4,089 4,882 5,300
Submission 2011 [TJ] 0 0 0 0 0 2,843 5,211 4,089 4,882 5,546
absolute change [TJ] 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -246
relative change [%] 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 -4.44
LPG
Unit 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
Submission 2012 [TJ] 138 137 229 184 184 138 115 106 106 100
Submission 2011 [TJ] 138 137 229 184 184 138 115 106 106 100
absolute change [TJ] 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
relative change [%] 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Unit 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Submission 2012 [TJ] 95 570 608 695 1,888 2,358 4,606 8,943 15,653 23,843
Submission 2011 [TJ] 94 569 607 694 1,887 2,357 4,605 8,942 15,652 19,020
absolute change [TJ] 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4,823
relative change [%] 1.06 0.18 0.16 0.14 0.05 0.04 0.02 0.01 0.01 25.36

EF: Emission factors were revised broadly within the 'Handbook Emission Factors for Road Transport' (HBEFA, version 3.1) and, hence, within TREMOD. Due to the number of EFs effected, it is not possible to present old and revised values in a proper way. For further information please refer to HBEFA 3.1 here.

For pollutant specific information on qualitative and quantitative impacts on 1990 and 2009 emission estimates see chapter 11. Recalculations and the following chapters.

Uncertainties

Uncertainty estimates for activity data of mobile sources derive from research project FKZ 360 16 023: "Ermittlung der Unsicherheiten der mit den Modellen TREMOD und TREMOD-MM berechneten Luftschadstoffemissionen des landgebundenen Verkehrs in Deutschland". For detailled information, please refer to the project's final report here (German version only!)

Uncertainty estimates for emission factors for all 1.A.3.b sub-categories were compiled during the PAREST research project. Here, the final report has not yet been published.

Planned improvements

At the moment, due to lack of information consumptions of LPG and CNG and resulting emissions are assigned to passenger cars only. Here, a more realistic breakdown will be implemented as soon as data is available.

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